- Dr Jaswinder Singh and Dr HK Verma
A veterinarian or a veterinary surgeon often shortened to Vet, is a physician for animals and a practitioner of Veterinary medicine. The word veterinarian comes from the word “Veterinae” meaning “Draught animals”. Veterinary means concerned with diseases of animals. Veterinary Education is the study of veterinary science and its application in professional practice.
Aim of veterinary education:- The aim of veterinary education is to produce veterinarians capable of using their skills to improve association of humans and animal by making the later free from their suffering and disease. The job of veterinarian is very daunting, keeping in view the wide range of silent creatures i.e. animals, which are unable to express their suffering. more over there is not a single species like human as is the case with a medico but a wide range of animals including both domestic and wild. The responsibilities of a vet do not end up here; he is the person who takes care of pet animals like dog, cat, birds etc. He is the person entitled to ensure production of safe and hygienic milk, meat, egg and other animal products. This makes the veterinary science a vast and interesting subject
Role of veterinarian in Human welfare:- The role of a veterinarian is prevention of diseases not only among animals but also to stop diseases from being transmitted from animal to mankind or vice versa. Food/feed, general public safety, animal health and welfare, environmental hygiene etc are his other responsibilities. There are many diseases which can be transmitted from animal to human being (zoonotic) like Bird flu in poultry, swine flu, anthrax, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), Foot and mouth disease, Tuberculosis, brucellosis in cow/buffaloes, Glander in horses , rabies in dog and many more. Veterinarians also ensure the soundness of the food items of animal origin like meat, milk and egg. There are many diseases which can spread to mankind through these products (cysticercosis, salmonelllosis, toxoplasmosis) and their soundness is to be checked by the veterinarian at the site of their origin (abattoir, hatchery, milk parlour) and consumer safety has to be ensured. Presently, there is lot of hue and cry about the health hazard of synthetic or adulterated milk. It is the veterinarian who can detect the synthetic or adulterated milk by checking it in lab. Veterinarian also helps in environmental hygiene by
1. Reducing the methane emission from livestock (second largest sources of methane) by advising proper and balanced diet.
2. By helping improve the digestion and reducing the mineral/organic matter excretion
3. By advocating the use of biogas, farmyard manure and, rotational grazing on the pasture which helps in making the environment green and clean.
In short what ever veterinarians do has the direct (through biomedical research, preventing zoonotic disease and food safety) and indirect (through environmental hygiene) positive impact on human health
A popular phrase says “Medicine can cure men, but only veterinary medicine has the potential to cure the humanity”.
- India though having only 2% area, it sustains 15% of world animal population.
- First in total livestock population in the world
- First in total buffalo population in the world (57% of the world population)
- First in total cattle population in the world (16% of the world population)
- First in total milk production in the world (110 MT) (13% of the world)
- 2nd in total Goat population in the world
- 3rd in total Sheep population in the world
- 5th in total egg production in the world
- 3rd largest producer of fish in world
- 2nd largest producer of Inland fish in the world
Scope of Veterinary Profession:-
- The demand of vets is on the rise in view of huge livestock population vis- a- vis demand of quality animal products.
- Due to commercialization of veterinary industry and liberalization of policies more and more international industries dealing in food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, diagnostic and vaccine production etc have opened the doors for veterinarian.
- Scope for entrepreneurship development in diversified areas is increasing. Canine and feline keeping in cosmopolitan cities, establishment of dairy and poultry industries, meat and milk processing ventures, establishment of livestock business and marketing etc are gaining momentum.
- Opportunities for higher education in foreign countries and demand for qualified professionals in developed countries is attracting Indian veterinarians.
- Motivation of diversification from agriculture, pro-livestock policies, liberalization of loans through agencies/banks for establishing the dairy, poultry, piggery and initiation of animal insurance scheme have been attracting the farmers to take to this sector.
Eligibility:- For taking admission in the B.V.Sc & A.H. ( Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry) course the minimum requisite qualifications is 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry , and Biology (PCB). The marks and age criteria are variable as per state and universities. Candidates are selected for this five years B.V.Sc & A.H. course on the basis of entrance test held as per VCI (Veterinary Council of India) recommendation by State Veterinary/Agriculture University at State level and by ICAR (Indian Council of Agriculture Research) at National level.
Where to study: Presently there are 9 veterinary universities, and 51 veterinary colleges imparting veterinary education in India. Out of these colleges 24 colleges are constituents of the 9 State Veterinary Universities, 17 are part of State Agriculture Universities (SAU’s), One is affiliated to Academic University (Pudicherry ) and one is under Central Agriculture University. “Apollo College of Veterinary Medicine” at Jaipur, has also been set up. Later on, other College at Bhartpur was also opened. In present situation a total of eight private colleges affiliated to veterinary universities are there, six in Rajasthan and one in Punjab and one in UP.
Fifteen percent seats in every college are filled through national level test conducted by ICAR and rest by the state level tests. In private collages of Rajasthan 50 % seats are reserved and rest are open for the students of all other states of India. A separate entrance test is being taken for these 50 % seat by the colleges. In private college of Punjab, all seats are filled by the entrance test taken by GADVASU, Ludhiana.
Career Opportunities in Veterinary Science
For pursuing the career in teaching one has to do post graduation (M.V.Sc), the minimum qualification for the post of Assistant professor. For doing M.V.Sc, there is a State and a National level test for B.V.Sc & A.H. graduates. Apart from the veterinary colleges, IVRI (Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, UP) offers the master and Ph.D programmes in different disciplines. National Dairy Research Institutes (NDRI) and College of Animal Science, CCSHAU, Hisar are awarding master and Ph.D in the animal sciences (Management, Nutrition, breeding and dairy science) only. Some of these colleges also offer Post graduation in Wild life.
To cater to the needs of huge livestock population, many national and international companies in the field of nutrition, pharmaceuticals, milk/meat processing centers, diagnostics and for vaccine production have also been coming ups. Again the demand of technocrats increases in these sectors. Many NGO’S run by animal lovers animal welfare boards/clubs, private agencies are also coming for animals help and are employing the veterinarians. Similarly zoos, national parks and sanctuaries recruit the veterinarians to take care of their animals. The changing trend of rearing the costly and purebreed dogs/cats makes this profession highly paid, particularly for small animal practitioners. Many new dog clinics with latest facilities, dog training centers, dog beauty parlour/ saloon are opening every day in the metro cities to cope with the rising demand.
Along with this there are many more avenues for veterinarians like in army (RVC) SSB, BSF, private farms and they can also go for services, MBA (managerial services). There are good opportunities abroad for higher studies, the basic requirement are the score of GRE/TOFEL along with a good professional record. One can also open his own clinic.
Veterinary and Animal Science Universities
- Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Science University (TANUVAS), Chennai-600051, TAMIL NADU, www.tanuvas.tn.nic.in Ph : 044-25551584
- West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences (WBUAFSc), 68, KB Sarani, Kolkata, -700037, WEAT BENGAL, www.wbuafscl.ac.in Ph 033-25569234
- Maharashtra Animal Sciences And Fishery University (MAFSU), Seminary Hills, NAGPUR-440006, MAHARASHTRA, www.mafsu.in. Ph 0712-2511273
- U.P.Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University And Cattle Research Institute (UPDDUVU& CRI), Mathura-281001, UTTAR PRADESH, www.upvetuniv.edu.in. Ph: 0565-2411178
- Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU), Admn. Office, Regional Library Building, Tirupati- 517502, ANDHRA PRADESH , www.vetversitytirupati.gov.in Ph 0877-2248894
- Karnataka Veterinary Animal And Fishery Science University (KVAFSU), Bidar- 585401, KARNATAKA, www.kvafsu.edu.in Ph: 08482-245241
- Guru Angad Dev Veterinary And Animal Science University (GADVASU), Ludhiana- 141004, PUNJAB, www.gadvasu.in Ph: 0161-2553442, 2553443
- Madhya Pradesh Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidhyalaya, Jabalpur- 482001, MADHYA PRADESH. Ph : 0761-2621302
- Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner- 334001, RAJASTHAN. Ph: 0151-2543429
1. College of veterinary science, Tirupati- 517502
2. College of Veterinary Science, Chittoor, ANDHRA PRADESH
3. College of Veterinary Science , Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad- 500030,
4. College of Veterinary Science , Gannavaram-
5. College of Veterinary Science, Proddatur, Kadapa Dist.,
6. College of Veterinary Science, Korutla, Karimnagar Dist.
7. College of Veterinary Science (AAU) Khanapara, Guwahati-781022
8. Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science (AAU Azad Lakhimpur-787001
9. Bihar Veterinary College (RAU-P), Patna-800014.
10. College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry (IGKVV), Anjora Durg-491001
11. College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry (SDAU), Sardar Krushi Nagar-385506.
12. College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (AAU) Anand-388110.
Veterinary College ,Navasari, 396 450
13. College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ,Junagarh
14 College of Veterinary Sciences (CCSHAU) Hisar-1250004
15. College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (CSKHPKV) Palampur- 176062
Jammu & Kashmir
16.Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry (SKUAST-K) Sri Nagar.
17. Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (SKUAST-J) K) Sri Nagar.
17. Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (SKUAST-J) RS Pura, Jammu
18. Ranchi Veterinary College (BAU), Ranchi, 834006
19. College of Veterinary Sciences (KVAFSU) Hebbal, Bengaluru-560024
20. Veterinary College (KVAFSU) Nandi Nagar Bidar-585401.
21. Veterinary College, Shimoga-577201,
22. Veterinary College, Hassan, KARNATAKA
23 College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (KAU), Mannuthy, Thrissur-680651
24 College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (KAU) Pookhote, Wayanand distt Thrissur-680651
25 College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (JNKVV) Krishi Nagar, Adhartal, Jabalpur-482001
26 College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (JNKVV), Mhow-453446
27 College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, (JNKVV) Rewa-486006
28 Bombay Veterinary college (MASFUL) Parel-400012 Mumbi
29 College of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry (MASFU), Krishnagar , Parbhani-431402
30. K N P College of Veterinary Science (MASFU), Shirval, Satara-412801
31 Nagpur Veterinary College (MASFU), Seminary Hills, Nagpur,440006
32 College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (MASFU), Udgir-413517, Latur
33 College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (OUAT), Bhubaneshwar-751003
34 College of Veterinary Science (GADVASU) Ludhiana-141 004
35 Khalsa College of Veterinary & Animal Science,Chherhatta Road, Amritsar-143002
36. College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (RUVAS), Bikaner-334001
37. Apollo College of Veterinary Medicine-Agra Road, Jaipur-302003
38. Mahatma Gandhi Veterinary College-NH-11, Agra Road Bharatpur-321001
39. College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Navania, Vallabhnagar, Udaipur- 313601
40. Arawali Veterinary College, Bajore Village, Jaipur Road, Sikar,
41.Mahatma Jyoti Fule College of Vetry & Animal Science, Ringus Road, Chomu. Jaipur,
42. B.S. College of Veterinary Medicine & Research Center, Goriwara Kalan, Mukundgarh, Jhunjhunu,
43.Sri Ganganagar Veterinary College, Hanumangarh Road ,Sri Ganganagar,
44. Madras Veterinary College (TANUVAS), Vepery High road, Chennai-600007
45. Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkkal-637001(TN)
46.College of Veterinary Sciences (GBPUAT), Pantnagar-263145
47.College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (NDUAT), Narendra Nagar, Kumar Ganj, Faizabad-224229
48.College of Veterinary Sciences (UPPDDUPCVVEGAS) Mathura-281001 UP
49. SM College of Veterinary Science & Animal research, Palidungra, Sonkh Road, Mathura
50. College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (WBUAFS), 37 Khudiram Bose Sarani,
(The authors are associated with the Dept of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension Education, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & Animal Sciences University(GADVASU), Ludhiana, Punjab,India-141004)
51. Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Kurumbapet, Pondicherry-605009.